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Tuesday, 27 June 2017
 
 
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 The Survival ABCs - The Military Guide to survival in any situation anywhere in the world.

 

Much of the latest technology that is commercialized in the public domain is a spin-off from space and military research. In these areas, massive amounts of funding are available. Scientists are only limited by their imagination as to how far they can explore and develop new ideas. It is no surprise then, that the greatest research, testing and proven application of survival knowledge, skills and equipment, has its origins in the military.

The following key Survival ABCs are sourced from The Department Of The Army Field Manual FM 21-76, dated October 1957.  The information is freely available in the public domain, and is provided here for your convenience.

The focus of instruction therefore is on survival situations and all eventualities from a perspective of combat and war.  Although you are unlikely to find yourself in a survival situation in the middle of a war zone, it is important to recognize that in any major disaster situation, normal Law and Order frequently breaks down and that civil unrest and criminal tendancies lie just a scratches depth below the veneer of civilized society.

Introduction

General

  1. Modern combat increases the likelihood of your becoming isolated and having to find water, food, and shelter for many days---even weeks---while making it back to friendly forces. Small units fighting in widely dispersed formations or on special missions forward of friendly lines are more likely to be cut off than ever before. Large units traveling great distances by air and sea make survival in remote and desolate areas a real possibility for you. The ability to evade the enemy and to escape if captured, both basic requirements of the soldier's Code of Conduct, demands every survival skill you can master. The chances of being exposed to such an emergency are always present, especially when traveling, so survival techniques should be a part of your basic soldiering skills.

  2. This manual has been written to help you acquire these skills. It tells how to travel, find water and food, shelter yourself from the weather, and care for yourself if you become sick or injured. This information is first treated generally and then applied specifically to such special areas as the Arctic, the desert, the jungle, and on the ocean.

  3. Individual skills such as map reading, using a compass or other directional guides, scouting and patrolling, camouflage, first aid, sanitation, personal hygiene, and night vision provide a good foundation on which to build further survival skills. You should have a good general knowledge of them already, so they are repeated in this manual only as they apply to survival specifically.

  4. You can remain alive anywhere in the world when you keep your wits. This is a major lesson in survival. Remember that nature and the elements are neither your friend nor your enemy---they are actually disinterested. Instead, it is your determination to live and your ability to make nature work for you that are the deciding factors.

Field Skills

A knowledge of field skills, including woodcraft, firemaking, food and water sources, shelter devices, and navigational techniques is necessary for survival. A basic knowledge of woodcraft, for example, prevents wasting valuable time fishing with a hook when a spear or net made from materials at hand would do a better job. Your survival chances increase as your knowledge of field skills increases; as you improve your ability to improvise; and as you learn to apply the principles contained in this manual to your immediate situation.

Individual and Group Survival

The Will to Survive

1.    General. The experiences of hundreds of servicemen isolated during World War II and Korean combat prove that survival is largely a matter of mental outlook, with the will to survive the deciding factor. Whether with a group or alone, you will experience emotional problems resulting from fear, despair, loneliness, and boredom. In addition to these mental hazards, injury and pain, fatigue, hunger, or thirst, tax your will to live. If you are not prepared mentally to overcome all obstacles and accept the worst, the chances of coming out alive are greatly reduced.

2.    If you Are Alone. The shock of finding yourself isolated behind enemy lines, in a desolate area or in enemy hands can be reduced or even avoided if you remember the keyword S-U-R-V-I-V-A-L.

1.    S---size up the situation by considering yourself, the country, and the enemy.

a.    Yourself. Hope for the best but be prepared for the worst. Recall survival training and expect it to work. After all, you have been through this before and the only difference is that this is the real thing. In this way you will increase your chances for success by being confident that you can survive. Get to a safe, comfortable place as quickly as possible. Once there, look things over, think, and form a plan. Your fear will lessen and your confidence will increase. Be calm. Take it easy until you know where you are and where you are going.

b.    The Country. Part of your fear may come from being in strange country; therefore, try to determine where you are by landmarks, compass directions, or by re calling intelligence information passed on to you by your leaders.

c.    The Enemy. Put yourself in the enemy's shoes. What would you do? Watch the enemy's habits and routines. Base your plan on your observation. Remember, you know where the enemy is but he does not know where you are.

2.    U---Undue haste makes waste.

a.    Don't be too eager to move. It will make you careless and impatient. You begin to take unnecessary risks and you might end up like these men---

i.    "All that was on my mind was to get away, so I just rushed headlong without any plan. I tried to travel at night, but I just injured myself further by bumping into trees and fences. Instead of laying low and trying to evade the enemy, I fired at them with my carbine and was caught the second time."

ii.    "I became very impatient. I had planned to wait until night but could not. I left the ditch about noon and walked until I was captured."

b.    Don't lose your temper. It may cause you to stop thinking. When something irritating happens, stop. Take a deep breath and relax; start over.

c.    Face the facts---danger does exist. To try to convince yourself otherwise only adds to the danger. Don't be like the soldier who was captured by a child because he thought, "Capture is the last thing I have to worry about. This is merely a game. It really is not happening to me."

3.    R---remember where you are. You may give yourself away because you are used to acting in a certain way. Doing "what comes naturally" may be the tip-off that you don't belong there. One soldier, captured because he whistled a song, reported, "Everything had been going well on the train. Suddenly an ugly little woman started whistling 'Tipperary'. Immediately, I unconsciously began to whistle with her. It gave me away." If he had been one of the "enemies" the chances are he would not have known the song.

4.    V---vanquish fear and panic.

a.    To feel fear is normal and necessary. It is nature's way of giving you that extra shot of energy just when you need it. Learn to recognize fear for what it is and control it. Look carefully at a situation and determine if your fear is justified. When you investigate you will usually find many of your fears unreal.

b.    When you are injured and in pain, it is difficult to control fear. Pain sometimes turns fear into panic and causes a person to act without thinking. One pilot, downed during World War II, might have saved himself had he been able to stop and think when his parachute caught in a tree and he was suspended head down, his foot tangled in the webbing. Unfortunately, the pilot's head touched an anthill and biting ants immediately swarmed over him. In desperation he pulled his gun and fired five rounds into the webbing holding his foot. When he did not succeed in breaking the harness by shooting at it, he placed the last shot in his head.

c.    Panic can also be caused by loneliness. It can lead to hopelessness, thoughts of suicide, and carelessness---even capture or surrender. Recognizing these signs help you overcome panic.

d.    Planning your escape will help keep your mind busy. Find things to do and watch. One soldier, not knowing what to do, decided to kill all of the bugs. There were a lot of spiders, the big ones that do not hurt a human, so he killed the flies and gave them to the spiders to eat. He found something to do. Prayer, reading the Bible, or other religious observance will help calm you. But miracles work best for those who prepare carefully and do all they can to save themselves.

5.    I---improvise.

a.    You can always do something to improve the situation. Figure out what you need; take stock of what you have; then improvise.

b.    Learn to put up with new and unpleasant conditions. Keeping your mind on SURVIVAL will help. Don't be afraid to try strange foods. One survivor reported that some men would almost starve before eating strange food. He said they tried a soup made from lamb's head, with lamb's eyes floating around in it. When a new prisoner came in, he would try to find a seat next to him so he could eat the food the prisoner refused.

6.    V---value living.

a.    Hope and a real plan for escape reduce your fear and make your chances of survival better. Just beginning to plan his escape to friendly forces made this soldier feel better: "I went outside one time and saw a powerful search light from a distance. I realized this was from friendly forces. Immediately I transferred all my thoughts from my personal miseries to escape plans and began to feel better."

b.    Conserve your health and strength. Illness or injury will greatly reduce your chance of survival and escape.

c.    Hunger, cold, and fatigue lower your efficiency and stamina; make you careless; and increase the possibility of capture. Knowing this will make you especially careful because you will realize that your low spirits are the result of your physical condition and not the danger.

d.    Remember your goal---getting out alive. Concentrating on the time after you "get out alive" will help you value living now.

7.    A---act like the natives. "At the railroad station, there were German guards," one escapee related. "I had an urgent need to urinate. The only rest room was an exposed one in front of the station. I felt too embarrassed to relieve myself in front of all passersby. I walked throughout the entire town occasionally stopping and inquiring if a rest room were available." This man was detected and captured because he failed to accept the customs of the natives. When you are in this situation accept and adopt native behavior. In this way, you avoid attracting attention to yourself.

8.    L---learn basic skills. The best life insurance is to make sure that you learn the techniques and procedures for survival so thoroughly that they become automatic. Then the chances are that you will do the right thing, even in panic. Work on the training you are offered because it may mean your life. Be inquisitive and search for additional survival knowledge.

3.    The Group.

1.    Just as you must make your reactions to survival situations automatic, so must the group that you might be leading. Groups such as squads or platoons that work together and have leaders that fulfill their responsibilities, have the best chance for survival.

2.    If you and your group consider the following factors while evading capture, you should return to friendly forces successfully.

a.    Organize group survival activities.

  •        Group survival depends largely upon the organization of its manpower. Organized action where group members know what to do and when to do it, both under ordinary circumstances and during a crisis, prevents panic. One technique for achieving organized action is to keep your group well informed. Another is to devise a plan and then stick to it.

  •     Assigning each man a task that most closely fits his personal qualifications is an additional way of organizing your group. If one man feels he can fish better than cook, assign him the job of providing fish. Always try to determine and use special skills within the group.
  •     Good leadership minimizes panic, confusion, and disorganization. It is your responsibility as the senior member of the group to assume command and establish a chain of command that includes all members of the group. Make certain that each man knows his position in the chain of command and is familiar with the duties of every other man, especially yours. Under no circumstances should leadership of the group be given to any member by a chance acceptance, after a situation arises.

       

b.    Lead your men. Group survival is a test of effective leadership. Maintain your leadership prestige by using it wisely; be the leader, set the example. Supervise constantly to prevent serious arguments, troublemakers from attracting undue attention, those who may "crack up" from disrupting the group, and to prevent carelessness caused by fatigue, hunger, and cold. Know yourself and your men and be responsible for each individual's welfare.

c.    Develop a feeling of mutual dependence within the group by stressing that each man depends on the other men for survival. Emphasize that wounded or injured men will not be left behind---that it is each member's responsibility to see that the group returns intact. This attitude fosters high morale and unity. Each member receives support and strength from the other.

d.    No matter what the situation, the leader must make the decisions. Because he needs intelligence upon which to base his decision, he should ask for information and advice from other members of the group---much as a general officer uses his staff. Above all else, the leader must at all times avoid the appearance of indecision.

e.    Situations arise that must be acted upon immediately. The ability to think on your feet usually determines survival success. Consider the facts and make decisions rapidly.

Avoiding Detection

Survival when you are isolated in enemy territory depends as much on your ability to avoid detection and capture as it does to find enough food, water, and shelter. You must know---

1.    How to conceal yourself when the enemy is near and to move without silhouetting yourself against the skyline; and how to keep from being spotted from enemy aircraft.

2.    How far noises carry in fog, falling snow, heavy foliage, or over rock faces.

3.    How smells from cooking food, tobacco, wood smoke, body odors, and body wastes can reveal your location.

4.    The dangers of sudden, rapid movement.

5.    How to observe the enemy without being observed.

6.    How to camouflage yourself, your camp, and equipment; and the dangers of using too much camouflage.

7.    How to select routes for movement which avoid exposed areas; how to move quietly without leaving obvious tracks; and how to determine travel time for yourself or for a group.

8.    How to signal using your voice, hands and arms, pebbles, and pieces of wood.

Suppose You're Captured?

1.    What happens if you become a prisoner of war? After all, it is possible. Isolation, fear, and injury---all work in favor of the enemy to increase the chances of capture, in spite of a determined effort on your part to evade. The surrender of your arms, however, doesn't mean that you forfeit your responsibilities as an American soldier. The Armed Forces Code of Conduct directs that you begin planning your escape the minute you are taken prisoner.

2.    Escape is tough; making it stick is even tougher. It demands courage and cunning and much planning---of seeking ways out, routes to follow, and the location of friends. Above all, it demands physical stamina---stamina that you must acquire under the worst conditions imaginable. Experience has proved that "model" camps, where rations are regular and treatment considerate, are the exception. But no matter what extremes your life as a POW assumes, your aim should be the same to keep yourself physically able and sufficiently equipped for the breakout.

A Plan for Survival

Since the conditions in various POW camps differ, it is impossible to provide a specific survival plan for each situation. What you need is a guide to help you plan to make the best of what you have. Here is one such plan that you can remember by the word S-A-T---Save, Add to, Take care of.

1.    Save.

What can you save in a POW camp? The answer is; everything---clothing, pieces of metal, cloth, paper, string---anything. A piece of twine may mean success or failure when it comes time to break out. Hide these items under the floor or in a hole in the ground. If they are discovered, they may appear harmless and little or nothing will be done to punish you.

1.    Wear as few clothes as possible. Save your shoes, underwear, shirts, jacket, and any other items of clothing that will protect you from the elements when you begin your trip back.

2.    Save any nonperishable foods that you receive from the Red Cross or your captors. Candy, for example, comes in handy as a quick source of energy when traveling. If no other candy source is available, save each issue of sugar given you by the enemy. When you get enough, boil it down into hard candy. Save it until you build up your supply. Canned foods that you might receive are ideal for storing. However, if the enemy punctures the cans to prevent your saving it, you may still preserve this food by resealing the cans with wax or some other field expedient. It may be feasible for you to save this food by re-cooking it and changing its form. Other foods to hoard against the day of your escape include suet and cooked meat, nuts, and bread.

3.    Save pieces of metal no matter how insignificant they may seem. Nails and pins can serve as buttons or fasteners. Old tin cans are excellent for improvised knives, cups, or food containers. If you are fortunate enough to have a razor blade, guard it. Use it for shaving only. Devise ways of sharpening it---rub it on glass or stone or some other hard surface. A clean shave is a good morale booster.

4.    Save your strength but keep active. A walk around the compound or a few mild calisthenics keep your muscles toned. Sleep as much as you can. You won't get much rest on your way back.

2.    Add To.

1.    Use your ingenuity. Select those items that you can't get along without and supplement them; for example, your rations. There is more to eat, in and around your compound than you think. When you are allowed to roam around the campgrounds, look for natural foods native to the area. See chapters 4 and 6 for a discussion of edible foods. If possible, add these roots, grasses, leaves, barks, and insects to your escape cache. They will keep you alive when the going gets tough.

2.    Supplement your clothing so the more durable garments are in good repair when you escape. A block of wood and a piece of cloth make good moccasins and save your boots. Rags can substitute for gloves; straw can be woven into hats. Don't forget to salvage clothing from the dead.

3.    Take Care Of.

Probably the most important part of any plan for survival is the "take-care-of" phase. Maintain what you have. There won't be any reissue when your shoes wear out or you lose your jacket. Also, it's easier to maintain good health than to regain it once it's lost.

1.    Put some of your clothing into your escape cache. Watch the rest for early signs of wear and repair it with improvised material, if necessary. A needle made from a thorn, nail, or splinter and threaded with unraveled cloth, can mend a torn pair of trousers. Wood canvas, or cardboard bound to the soles of your shoes will save them from wear. Even paper will suffice as a reinforcing insole if your shoes do wear through.

2.    Good physical health is essential to survival under any circumstances. It is especially important in a POW camp where living conditions are crowded and food and shelter inadequate. This means that you must use every device possible to keep yourself well.

a.    Soap and water is a basic preventive medicine; so keep clean. If water is scarce, collect rainwater, use dew, or simply rub yourself daily with a cloth or your bare hands. Pay attention to areas on your body that are susceptible to rash and fungus infection---between your toes, your crotch and scalp.

b.    The cleanliness rule also applies to your clothing. Use soap and water when you can spare it. Hang your clothes in the sun to air if soap and water are not available. Examine the seams of your clothing and hairy portions of your body frequently for lice and their eggs. Disease infected lice can kill. A possible way to get laundry service or even a bath is to tell your guard that you are infested with lice, whether or not your complaint is true. The prison authorities, fearing that lice on prisoners may cause an outbreak of louse-borne disease among the civilian population, might provide this service.

c.    In the event you become ill, report your condition to the camp authorities. The chance that you will receive aid is worth the try.

Health and First Aid

You Are the Doctor

1.    Keeping well is especially important when you are on your own. Your physical condition has much to do with your will to survive and your success in returning safely.

2.    Chances are you will not have trained medical personnel to help you maintain your health. You must rely on your initiative and your knowledge of first aid to prevent disease and to treat any injuries that you might receive.

Aids to Maintaining Health

Protecting yourself against disease and injury involves making habits of a lot of simple rules which we call personal hygiene. The immunizations you have had will continue to give you good protection against a few of the more serious diseases to which you may be exposed: smallpox, typhoid fever, tetanus (lockjaw), typhus, diphtheria, and cholera. They will not protect against the much more common diseases like diarrhea, dysentery, colds, and malaria. Your only means of preventing these is by keeping physically fit and by keeping disease germs out of your body. Applying the following rules will go a long way toward keeping you on your feet.

1.    Keep Clean.

1.    Body cleanliness is the first defense against disease germs. A daily shower with hot water and soap is ideal. If this is impossible, keep the hands as clean as possible and sponge the face, armpits, crotch, and feet at least once a day.

2.    Keep your clothing, especially your underclothing and socks, as clean and dry as possible. If laundering is impossible shake out your clothing and expose to sun and air daily.

3.    If you have a toothbrush, use it regularly. Soap or table salt and soda make good substitutes for toothpaste, and a small green twig, chewed to a pulpy consistency at one end, will serve as a toothbrush. After eating rinse your mouth if purified water is available.

2.    Guard Against Intestinal Sickness.

1.    Common diarrhea, food poisoning, and other intestinal diseases are the commonest if not the most serious of the diseases you will have to guard against. Putting filth or poisons into the mouth and stomach causes them. To guard against these diseases---

a.    Keep the body, particularly the hands, clean. Keep your fingers out of your mouth. Avoid handling food with the hands.

b.    Purify your drinking water by use of purification tablets or by boiling for four minutes. Avoid beverages from native sources.

c.    Avoid eating raw foods, especially those grown on or in the ground. Wash and peel fruits.

d.    Avoid holding food for long periods following preparation.

e.    Sterilize your eating utensils by heat.

f.    Keep flies and other vermin off your food and drink. Keep your camp clean.

g.    Adopt strict measures for disposing of human wastes. Apparently healthy persons can carry deadly germs.

2.    If you develop vomiting or diarrhea, rest and stop eating solid foods until the symptoms ease up. Take fluids, particularly water, in small amounts at frequent intervals. As soon as can be tolerated, resume eating semisolid foods. Normal salt intake should be maintained.

3.    Guard Against Heat Injury. In hot climates develop a tan by gradual exposure to the sun. Avoid strenuous exertion in the hot sun; you may develop fatal heat stroke. Consuming enough water and salt to replace the sweat can prevent the lesser illnesses caused by heat. Salt tablets or table salt should be taken in the proportion of 2 tablets or l/4, teaspoonful to a quart of water. Treatment of heat casualties consists of cooling the body and restoring water and salt.

4.    Guard Against Cold Injury.

1.    When exposed to severe cold conserve your body heat by every means possible. Take particular care of the feet, hands, and exposed parts. Keep your socks dry and use any available material including rags and paper to improvise protective covering.

2.    Frostbite is a constant danger to anyone exposed to temperatures below freezing. Treatment of frostbite consists of getting the patient into a warm place (normal room temperature) as soon as possible; rapidly re-warming frozen parts of the body by immersion in warm water (90 F.---104 F.); by placing a warm hand on the frozen part; or by exposure to warm air. Do not massage or apply snow or ice to the affected area. See paragraphs 58b and c.

5.    Guard Against Insects and Insect-Borne Diseases. Common insects such as flies, mosquitoes, lice, ticks, and mites carry many of our most serious diseases such as typhoid fever, dysenteries, malaria, brain fever, and yellow fever. Every possible means should be used to avoid the contamination of food by flies and the bites of mosquitoes and other insects. Lacking screening, bed nets, insecticides, and repellents, this will be very difficult since improvisations are hard to come by. Some of the things you can do are---

1.    Protect food and beverages from flies and other vermin.

2.    Avoid close contact with natives.

3.    Cover the body to reduce exposure to mosquitoes, especially after dark.

4.    Take a suppressive drug to prevent malaria when such is available.

5.    Keep free of lice.

6.    Remove ticks promptly.

6.    Guard Against Contact Diseases. Many diseases such as venereal diseases, dysenteries, tuberculosis, measles, mumps, and common respiratory and skin diseases result from close association with cases or carriers of these diseases. Avoid intimate contacts with the native who is likely to be a source of these diseases.

7.    Take Care of Your Feet.

1.    Do not wear dirty or sweaty socks. If you don't have a clean pair, wash out those that you have on. If you have an extra pair to wear, put the washed pair inside your shirt next to your body. They will dry in a short time. If possible, wear woolen socks; they absorb perspiration.

2.    Blisters are dangerous because they may cause fatal infections. If your shoes fit well and you dry them after crossing wet ground, if you change your socks frequently, and if you exercise your feet, you should not have much trouble with blisters. Should you develop a blister, however, pierce through the thick skin at its base with a sterilized needle or knife blade (the point of the needle or knife may be quickly sterilized by holding it in a flame for a few seconds); press and drain the blister. Then apply a clean bandage to prevent the dead skin from being rubbed off before it is healed.

Survival First Aid

1.    Illness and injury are always potential survival partners. Situations may arise when you will have to treat yourself or your companions. You are not likely to have either adequate medical supplies or trained personnel to administer treatment. You will have to improvise equipment to perform even simple first aid.

1.    You can make bandages and dressings fairly sterile by boiling or steaming them in a covered container or charring them.

2.    Try to keep all improvised equipment as sterile as possible. Extreme heat is your best method of doing this.

2.    Medical treatment other than the simplest first aid can be dangerous. If you don't know the procedure for treatment, make the person comfortable rather than chance injuring him further with improper treatment.

3.    Injuries that you are most likely to encounter while on your own include cuts and bruises, fractures, sprains, concussions, and burns. In all cases of severe injury, keep the person lying down, if he is unconscious, keep him lying on his side or on his belly, with his head turned to one side to prevent choking. Handle the injured man carefully, especially if he has a fracture or back injury. Give as much treatment for shock as possible.

4.    Follow these procedures---

1.    Shock.

a.    This condition is characterized by paleness, trembling, sweating, and thirst, and can accompany any injury. The more severe the wound, the more likely it is that shock will develop.

b.    If he is unconscious lay the patient flat on his back. Raise his feet unless he has a head injury or breathing difficulty. Keep him comfortably warm but avoid overheating him. If the patient is conscious give him warm drinks.

c.    If you are alone and become seriously injured, lie down in a depression in the ground, behind a tree, or any place sheltered from the wind. If you can, lie with your head lower than your feet to increase the flow of blood to your head. Keep yourself as warm as possible and rest for at least 24 hours.

2.    Bleeding. Stop bleeding as soon as possible by using the following methods:

a.    If you have a first aid packet, place the sterile dressing directly on the wound and press it with your hand, or bandage the wound firmly.

b.    If the bleeding is from an arm or leg, and if bleeding continues, elevate the injured area and continue the pressure. Caution: if you suspect a broken bone, do not elevate the leg or arm.

c.    If bleeding continues in spite of pressure dressing and elevation of injured arm or leg, then apply finger pressure on

d.    Apply a tourniquet only if you are unable to control the bleeding by applying pressure and by elevation. In cases where severe, uncontrolled bleeding necessitates the use of the tourniquet, it should be applied between the wound and the heart. In cases where there is a traumatic amputation (loss or an arm, leg, hand, foot, etc.), place the tourniquet near the end of the stump. In all other cases where a tourniquet is required to control bleeding, place it above the elbow or knee. Once you apply a tourniquet, do not loosen or release it regardless of how long it has been on. Only medical personnel who are trained and equipped to control the bleeding by other means and to restore the lost blood volume should remove a tourniquet, once applied. But remember---the tourniquet should be regarded only as a last resort in control of bleeding! It should never be used if the bleeding can be adequately controlled by pressure and elevation.

3.    Fractures.

a.    Handle persons with fractures carefully to avoid causing additional injury.

b.    If a wound accompanies the fracture, tear or cut away the man's clothing and treat the wound before splinting it.

c.    Splint the patient before moving him. Improvise splints from branches, a tight roll of clothing, or pieces of equipment. Pad the splint and place it so that it supports the joints above and below the fracture. Immobilize a fractured leg by tying it to the unbroken leg, if other materials are unavailable.

4.    Sprains.

a.    Bandage and rest the sprained limb.

b.    Apply cold applications for the first 24 hours after injury; then apply heat.

c.    If it is necessary to use the sprained limb, splint the injured area as much as possible. Sprained limbs can be used to the limit that pain will allow.

5.    Concussion.

a.    Skull fractures or other head injuries should be suspected if there is unconsciousness, thin watery blood or blood-tinged water escaping from the nose or ears, convulsion, or unequal or unresponsive pupils of the eyes. The aforementioned signs are frequently accompanied by headache and vomiting.

b.    Keep the patient warm and dry and handle him gently.

6.    Burns.

a.    Sunburn will probably be the chief type of burn injury you will encounter. Protect the person from further exposure, and cover the sunburned area with ointment or a substitute made by boiling the bark of an oak, hemlock, or chestnut tree.

b.    Do not touch a sunburned area. Apply the ointment and cover the burn with a dressing. Do not remove the bandage except as an emergency or due to excessive soiling. Give the patient large amounts of fluid. Keep the burned area at rest.

7.    Hypothermia. 

 
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